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Glossary of Names

Here you will find an index of Place Names as found scattered throughout the Old Norse and Icelandic Eddas and Sagas. The references are often brief and sketchy in their details, giving only a fleeting glimpse of a world the ancient Viking ancestors knew well, or envisioned as a common cultural belief system, and embodied in these old traditional folk tales. References are provided to the location of each name if given in the primary source materials, with separate tabs for both the mythological and heroic sections of The Elder Edda, since these differ greatly in their conception.

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  • Glossary of Proper Names
  • Place Names in Norse Mythology
  • Place Names in the Norse Sagas

Ægir – Tempestuous sea god, husband of Ran and father of nine daughters, the billow maidens, who controlled the waves. The seething Nordic sea was known as "Ægir's Brewing Kettle."

Æsir – The Teutonic gods of war and justice, presiding over law and order. They supplanted the older Vanir fertility gods after the first war, being more forceful and active in the world of men, which was becoming increasingly violent. They dwelt in Æsgard, though each god had a splendid palace of their own.

Alberich (O.H.G.) or Andvari (O.N.) – Dwarf-smith of Nibelheim, brother of Mime. Forger of the Ring. He placed a curse on the ring after it was stolen from him by Thor and Odin. Wagner's version differs considerably from the Norse and Germanic sources, making Alberich the first thief of the gold, having taken it from the Rhinemaidens.

Alvis ("All-Wise") – Dwarf who forged the hammer of Thor in exchange for the hand in marriage of Thor's daughter, Thrud. Displeased with the arrangement, Thor outwitted him in a riddle contest by quizzing Alvis until sunrise turned him to stone.

Angrboda ("Distress-Bringer") - Frost giant, mistress of Loki, and mother of Fenrir, Jormungand, and Hel.

Baldur - Son of Odin and Frigg, spouse to Nanna, and father of Forseti. Beloved of the gods, his death was brought about by the envious Loki, an event which precipitated the end of the world.

Bragi - Son of Odin and the giantess Gunnlod, who possessed the Mead of Poetry. He was thus the god of poetry and eloquence, and is envisioned as an old man with a magical harp. His wife was Idun, the keeper of the magic apples of youth.

Brynhild - Valkyrie who defied Odin and was banished to earth and imprisoned in a ring of fire, until Sigurd broke through and freed her.

Draupnir - Odin's fabulous ring which dripped eight similar gold rings every ninth night. It was crafted by the dwarf smith Sindri while his brother Brokk pumped the bellows. In his grief Odin cast the ring upon Baldur's funeral pyre, although it was later returned when Hermod ventured to Hel.

The Einherjar - The heroic dead who were gathered from the battlefields by the Valkyries and taken to Valhalla to form Odin's private army in preparation for Ragnarök.

Fafnir – Son of Hreidmar who was corrupted by the cursed gold of Andvari/Alberich and transformed into a fire breathing dragon after slaying his father for the gold. He was ultimately slain by the hero Sigurd the Dragon Slayer.

Farbauti ("Cruel Striker") – Giant and father of Loki. An anthropomorphized form of the lightning bolt, he is said to have impregnated Loki's mother Laufey ("Tree Island") when she was struck by lightning.

Fenrir (or Fenris) – Giant wolf who was the son of Loki and the frost giant Angrboda. He was the doom of the gods, the devourer of Odin at the end of days.

Flosshilda – Eldest of the three Rhinemaidens in Wagner's opera cycle, whose duty was to guard the Rhinegold. She was the harshest of the three to Alberich.

Forseti – God of Justice, son of Baldur and Nanna. His hall of Glitnir had pillars of red gold and a roof inlaid with silver. There he sat in judgment, settling disputes of gods and men. He never failed to reconcile even the bitterest of foes.

Fjalar – Wicked dwarf who, along with his brother Galar, slew the wise Kvasir and drained his blood to extract his wisdom, which was mixed with honey to produce the Mead of Poetry that was kept in the Kettle of Inspiration.

Frey (or Freyr) – Vanir god of summer sun and plenty, son of Njord and Skadi, and twin brother of Freya. He was lord of the faery realm of Alfheim, land of the Light Elves. His flashing sword, which fought of its own accord, symbolized a sunbeam, and his cloud ship Skidbladnir could be folded up and put in his pocket.

Freya (or Freyja) – Voluptuous, blue-eyed goddess of love and beauty, daughter of Njord and twin sister to Freyr. She rode in a chariot drawn by cats, in which she traversed heaven and earth in search of her wayward husband Odur, shedding tears of gold all the while. She was herself not impure, however, having slept with four dwarves in order to obtain the Brising's necklace, her greatest treasure.

Frigg (or Frigga) – Consort of Odin, and a goddess of hearth and home, as well as prophecy. She sat beside Odin on the seeing throne Hlidskialf, but would never reveal what she saw. A deity of the atmosphere, she spun long pearly webs of cloud from her jewelled distaff which shone in the night sky as the constellation known as Frigg's Spinning Wheel.

Gerda – A beautiful frost giantess, daughter of the giant Gymir, who reluctantly became the wife of Frey, after the latter's persuasive servant Skirnir threatened to recite a terrible spell that would make Gerda so ugly it would make the blood run cold. The Aurora Borealis was believed to be the radiance of Gerda.

Gullveig – Witch-hag sorceress who brought to Æsgard the lust for gold that brought about the first war of the Gods. Odin tried to burn her, but it only made her stronger. She is a metaphor for gold itself, which is purified by fire and shines the brighter, and the greed that wealth entails. Her coming signals the beginning of the Doom of the Gods. She is the source of the Rhinegold.

Gungnir – The magic spear of Odin, crafted by the dwarfish sons of Ivaldi from a branch broken from Yggdrasil, the world tree. It never missed its mark.

Harbard ("Grey-Beard") – Odin in the guise of a surly boatman who refused to ferry his son Thor over a river, but only hurled insults at him as a lesson against Thor's hot-headed temper.

Heimdall – Watchman of the gods who stood upon Bifrost ready to blow the Gjallarhorn at the first sign of trouble. The son of nine mothers, he could hear the grass growing and see for over a hundred miles.

Hel – Daughter of Loki and ruler of the netherworld. Her body was a decomposing corpse from the waist down, and her subjects were those who died of sickness and old age.

Hermod – Son of Odin and Frigg, and brother to Baldur, whom he attempted to rescue from Hel after Baldur's death, to no avail.

Hodur – Blind god who is tricked by Loki into unintentionally killing Baldur with a dart made from a sprig of mistletoe.

Hoenir – A member of the Æsir and brother of Odin. He was sent to live among the Vanir as a token of goodwill after the warring clans made peace.

Huginn ("Thought") – One of the ravens of Odin that was sent each day to observe what happened in the nine worlds and report back to him each night.

Hymir ("Dark One") – Frost giant who was father to Tyr. He had an enormous cauldron so deep it could brew ale for all the gods.

Idun (or Iduna) – Goddess who guarded the magic golden apples of youth. She was the wife of Bragi, the god of poetry.

Jormungand – The World Serpent, a son of Loki and Angrboda, who was hurled into the icy ocean by Odin, where he grew to such a monstrous size that he encircled Midgard.

Lif & Lifthrasir ("Life" and "Eager for Life") – A human man and woman who were to hide in the cosmic ash tree Yggdrasil at Ragnarök, the doom of the gods, which they were destined to survive in order to repopulate the new world.

Loki – Fiery trickster god of the Norse. He is presented as a mischievous and playful prankster, but became so dark and twisted that his malic threatened the stability of the world and precipitated Ragnarök.

Mimir – Wise god of the Æsir whose head was cut off by the Vanir. Odin preserved it with charms and herbs and placed it as guard beside a magic well under the roots of Yggdrasil, where it dispensed wisdom to those who would pay its costly fee.

Mjollnir – Hammer of Thor made by the dwarf smiths Brokk and Eitri. It was an instrument of destruction, fertility, and resurrection. It always returned to Thor's hand when thrown.

Muninn ("Memory") – One of the ravens of Odin that was sent each day to observe what happened in the nine worlds and report back to him each night.

Nidhogg – A gruesome dragon that dwelt in icy Niflheim, where it devoured corpses and nibbled at the roots of Yggdrasil.

Njord – God of the sea, protector of ships and sailors, father of Freyr and Freya. He married the giantess Skadi, but could not live with her in her mountain hall, nor she in his underwater realm.

The Norns (or Nornir) – The Fates, or Goddesses of Destiny, of the Norse, equivalent to the Moerae of Greek mythology, and the source of Shakespeare's Weird Sisters in Macbeth. In the north they are Urd or Wyrd ("Fate"), Verdandi ("Present"), and Skuld ("Future").

Odin – The “All-Father,” chief among the gods, whose throne was the exalted Hlidskialf, a mighty watch-tower overlooking the Nine Worlds. He sacrificed one eye to gain wisdom and hung himself for nine days upon the world tree Yggdrasil to learn the secrets of the dead.

Ran – A stormy spirit of the sea, wife of Ægir, she gathered sailors in her drowning net and dragged them down to the depths of the sea.

Sif – The wife of Thor, she was famous for her golden hair, which the trickster Loki cut off while she was sleeping, then replaced with real gold woven into a wig.

Skirnir ("Shining") – Servant of Freyr who acted as his messenger.

Skoll – A wolf that pursues the sun across the sky, and who will swallow her at Ragnarök.

Sleipnir ("Glider") – The eight-legged horse of Odin, offspring of the great stallion Svadilfari and Loki in horse form. He could travel over sea and through the air, and was unbeatable in a race.

Surt ("Black") – A fire giant with a flaming blade who would set the cosmos alight at Ragnarök. Often identified with the fire god Loki.

Thor – God of thunder, son of Odin and Iorth, and husband to Sif. He was supernaturally strong, armed with the magical hammer Mjollnir which always returned to his hand, and was a fierce and mighty giant killer.

Thrud – Daughter of Thor and Sif. She was promised to the dwarf Alvis as a payment for his handicraft, but Thor prevented it through his own craftiness.

Tyr (or Tiwaz) – War god, son of Odin and Frigg, and thus brother to Thor. He lost a hand when it was bitten off by the wolf Fenrir.

Vafthrudnir – A wise frost giant who is challenged to a riddle game by a disguised Odin, and was ultimately defeated when Odin asked him a question to which only he knew the answer.

Vanir – The Teutonic fertility gods, representing an older, acrocentric social order of natural cycles and reliance on the elements of earth and water for abundant harvests. Njord, Frey and Freya were foremost among them, and the three hostages sent to live with the Æsir after the first war. The remaining Vanir dwelt in Vanaheim, in the far west of Æsgard near Bifrost.

Velgunda – Middle sister among the Rhinemaidens in Wagner's opera cycle. She was most repulsed by Alberich’s appearance.

Voglinda – Youngest of the three Rhinemaidens in Wagner's opera cycle. She was sympathetic to Alberich, who gave to her a gleaming necklace set with sea-green gems.

Vidar – Silent and solitary god, the son of Odin and the frost giantess Grid. He lived in Vidi, a place of quiet and peacefulness. It was Vidar's fate to avenge his father Odin's death at Ragnarök by slaying Fenrir.

Ymir – The first living creature in the Norse creation myth. He was a frost giant who emerged when warm air from Muspell met the cold air of Niflheim.

Æsgard – (O.N. Ásgarðr) “Townwall of the Ás,” the home of the Æsir, gods of war and power, commonly used with reference to the whole realm of the overworld. It contains many halls, among these being Gimli, Válaskjálf and Valhalla.

Ælfheim – “Elf-Home,” the realm of the Light-Elves, to the east of Æsgard. Baldúr’s hall is located there. Said to have been given to Freyr as his tooth-gift (Grímnismál 5). As such, and as god of fertility and prosperity, he would presumably be a primary deity of the Light-Elves, who live there.

Algron – “The All-Green,” mentioned only at Hárbarðsljóð 16 as the island where Odin stayed for five winters with Fjolvar.

Bífröst – “The Quaking Bridge,” the rainbow bridge leading from Midgard to Æsgard, guarded by Heimdall.

Bilskirnir – “Lightning-Crack,” Thor’s own hall within Valhalla, described in Grímnismál 24. Within it exist five hundred and forty rooms.

Breiðablik – “Broad-Gleaming” or “Wide-Shining,” the dwelling of Baldúr in Æsgard. Nothing evil (“unclean”) may enter there (cf. Grímnismál 12).

Élivágar – “Ice Waves” or “Stormy Waves,” the eleven rivers which existed in Ginnungagap at the beginning of the world, flowing from the spring of Hvergelmír in the underworld. Traditionally associated with the Élivágar are the Svöl, Gunnthrá, Fjörm, Fimbulthul, Slíð, Hríð, Sylgr, Ylgr, Víð, Leiptr and Gjöll (which flows closest to the gate of Hel and is spanned by the bridge Gjallarbrú), although many other additional rivers are mentioned by name in both Eddas.

Fensalír – “Fen-Halls,” Frigg’s dwelling in Æsgard, sometimes translated as “Sea-Halls.”

Fôlkvang – “Field of the Folk” or “Battlefield,” here is situated Freyja's hall, Sessrymnir ("Rich in Seats") (cf. Grímnismál 14).

Franangr – “Gleaming Water,” sometimes translated as “Franang’s Waterfall.” It was there that Loki attempted to hide from the gods in the form of a salmon, but was caught and cast in fetters (cf. Lokasenna, concluding prose).

Gastropnír – One of the abodes of the giants in Jötunheim, home of Menglad.

Gimli – A hall of Æsgard, roofed in gold, to which righteous men are said to go after death.

Ginnungagap – Literally, the “Yawning Gap,” between Niflheim and Muspelheim, the lands of ice and fire in the underworld.

Gjallarbrú – A bridge spanning the river Gjöll in the underworld, which must be crossed in order to reach Hel. It is described as a covered bridge, “thatched with glittering gold,” and figures most prominently in the story of Baldr, specifically when Hermód is sent to retrieve the fallen god from the land of the dead. When Hermód arrived at the bridge he was challenged by the giant maiden Módgud who demanded that he state his name and business before allowing him to pass.

Gjöll – River in the underworld which flows closest to the Hel-Gates and is spanned by the bridge Gjallarbrú.

Glaðsheimr – “Bright-Home” or “The Place of Joy,” a realm in Æsgard where Odin's hall of Valhalla is located according to Grímnismál 8. Snorri states in Gylfaginning that Glaðsheimr is a meeting hall, containing twelve high seats where the male Æsgardians hold council, located in Iðavöllr in Æsgard, near the hall of Vingólf where the Æsgardian goddesses gathered.

Glæsisvellir – The “Glittering Plains,” located in Jötunheim, wherein is Odainsaker (or Údáinsakr), the “Deathless Acre” where visitors become young and happy, and no one ever dies. In the Hervarar Saga, it is the kingdom of the friendly giant Gudmund and his son Höfund. (cf. Eireks saga víðförla)

Glitnir – The “Shining,” the home of Forseti, a god of judgement and law. Its pillars are of gold and its roof is set with silver. It is here Forseti holds court (cf. Grímnismál 15).

Gnipahellir – “Cliff-Cave” or “Mountaintop Cave,” an overhanging cave in Niflheim where Garm, the wolfhound of Hel (i.e. Fenrir), is chained until the onset of Ragnarök (cf. Baldrs Drammar 2-3, Grimnismól 44, Gylfaginning 51, Völuspá 43). It is possibly the entrance to the underworld of the dead.

Himinbjorg – “Heaven's Cliffs” or “Heavenly Mountains,” the dwelling at the end of the rainbow bridge Bifrost where Heimdall keeps watch against the coming of the giants (cf. Völuspá 27, Grímnismál 13).

Hliðskjálf (sometimes Anglicized Hlidskjalf; from hlid "side, gate" or hlifd "protection", and skjalf "shelf, bench, plane") is the high-seat or watchtower of Odin in the hall of Valaskjálf, enabling him to see into all worlds (Grímnismál, prose intro; Gylfaginning)

Hoddmímis Holt – “Hoard-Mimir’s Holt,” a cleft inside the trunk of Yggdrasil (see Mímameiðr) where Lif and Lifþrasir find shelter during Fimbulvetr (“Great Winter”) and take refuge from Surt’s fire during Ragnarök, and thus mankind is “reborn” from trees as were Ask and Embla (Gylfaginning 53; Vafthrudnismal 45).

Hveralund – “Kettle-Grove” or “Wet Woods,” a place of boiling hot springs where Loki is bound to a rock as punishment for his part in the death of Baldúr. Perhaps a region of Muspelheim, implied by the following stanzas (cf. Völuspá 34 ff.)

Hvergelmír – “The Cauldron Roaring,” or “Bubbling Boiling Spring,” the wellspring of cold situated midmost in Niflheim, and the source of the eleven rivers called the Élivágar. Above the spring, the serpent Niðhöggr gnaws on the lowermost root of the world-tree Yggdrasil.

Iðavöllr – “The Shining Plain,” meeting place of the gods in Æsgard, where they built their temples and founded forges, apparently in the center of the Æsir's city. According to Snorri’s Gylfaginning, Glaðsheimr is located there, near the hall of Vingólf. After Ragnarok the surviving gods will assemble there (Völuspá 7, 60).

Ífingr – The river which separates Jötunheim from Æsgard (Vafthrudnismal 16). No ice ever forms there, implying a swiftly moving flow, difficult to ford.

Iora’s Plains – “The Sandy Plains,” to which Dvalin’s dwarves emigrated after their creation (Thorpe’s Völuspá 14).

Jarnvid (O.N. Iârnvidir) – “Iron-Woods,” a forest lying between Midgard and Jötunheim, where the troll women known as Jarnvidjur dwell, including Angrboða (“Boder of Ill”) with her wolfish brood. A typical name for an old and monster-infested forest. (cf. Grimnismol 39, Völuspá 40) [see also Myrkwood]

Jötunheim – The realm of the rock giants and frost giants, east of Midgard, separated from the worlds of men and gods by several rivers (see Ifing) and the forest Jarnvid (Voluspa 40). It is ruled by the jotnar King Þrymr, who stole Thor’s hammer Mjollnír. The Völva seeress and the three primary Norns come from there (Völuspá 2, 8).

Juravale’s Marsh – Home of the ancestral dwarves (Auden-Taylor Völuspá 14)

Midgard – “Middle-Earth,” the realm of mortal men, bounded on the west by Nidavellir and to the east by Jotunheim, while in the south is Svartalfheim. Bifröst lies to the north, connecting Middle-Earth to Æsgard. The Spring of Mimir is said to be at the root of Yggdrasil which lies in Midgard.

Mímameiðr – “Mimi's Tree” (sometimes Anglicized as Mimameid or Mimameith), is a tree whose branches stretch over every land (and thus possibly another name for Yggdrasil), is unharmed by fire or metal, bears fruit that assists pregnant women, and upon whose highest bough roosts the cock Víðópnir (Fjölsvinnsmál 14).

Mímisbrunnr – “Mimir’s Well,” whose waters give wit and wisdom, located beneath the world tree Yggdrasil, at the one of its roots. It was there that Odin gave an eye to learn his future Fate, and there the Gjallarhorn is hid until the day of Ragnarök. Mimir’s head is ensconced there beneath a fountain of water.

Múspelheim – “Flame Land,” the realm of fire, light, and heat, in the south of the underworld (or possibly the overworld), from which the sun and moon arise each day. Surt, the Fire Giant, is the ruler of that land and guards its entrance with a flaming sword. Fire Demons dwell there (cf. Lokasenna 42).

Myrkwood – A forest lying between Muspelheim and Midgard (cf. Lokasenna 42), although it is also used of another border forest in the heroic lays (cf. Atlakvitha 3).

Náströnd – “Corpse-Strand” or “Strand of the Dead,” where Hel’s hall (“Sleet-Cold”) stands near the shores of Niflheim, far from the sun, with its doors facing north (Völuspá 38).

Niðavellír – The “Dark Fields” (or Niðafjoll, “Dark Crags”), realm of the Dwarves, lying north of Midgard (Völuspá 37). Possibly synonymous with Svartalfheim to the south, though alternately these might be the Dwarves who wandered away from their rocky homeland to the sandy shores of Juravale’s Marsh. A golden hall stands there where the Dwarves dwell.

Niflheim – “Mist-World,” the icy arctic realm of the dead beneath the other worlds, ruled over by Hel. It is the called the Ninth World, and is the lowest level of the underworld, where the evil dead suffer torment. Niflhel is located there.

Niflhel – Kingdom of Hel in Niflheim, encircled by a high wall and secured by strong gates.

Nôatûn – “Ships’ Haven,” “Shipstead,” or simply “Harbor,” the seaside home of Njörð, who calms the waves (cf. Grímnismál 16 and Voluspá 21).

Odainsaker (or Údáinsakr) – The “Deathless Acre” in Glæsisvellir where visitors become young and happy, and no one ever dies.

Okólnír – “Never Cold” or “Ever-Frost,” a region in the north, possibly a volcanic plain (or a volcano itself), where stands the giant Brimir’s beer-hall (Völuspá 37). It is mentioned in connection to Niðavellír, but seems to be a giant’s dwelling place rather than that of dwarves. However, Brimir is the giant from whose blood the dwarves were made.

Óskopnir – “Not-Made,” apparently another name for Vígríth (cf. Fáfnismal 15)

Sessrymnir – “Rich in Seats,” Freyja's hall in Folkvang. Grímnismál15 seems to confuse this hall with that of Frigg, who chooses half the slain each day.

Slíð – “The Frightful,” a poisonous river of cutting cold, one of the eleven Élivágar flowing from Hvergelmír.

Sokkvabekk – “The Sinking Stream.” Of this spot, and of Saga, who is said to live there amid the murmur of the cool waters’ flow, little is known. Saga (i.e. “Seeress”) may be an hypostasis of Frigg, but Snorri calls her a distinct goddess, and the name suggests some relation to history or story-telling. Named at St.7 in Grímnismál, where Odin is said to drink there daily with Saga from cups of gold.

Svartalfheim – The realm of the Dark-Elves in the south of Midgard, on the western slopes of the mountains bordering Jötunheim. Perhaps equivalent to the Dwarves, or maybe more akin to something like Ogres, Trolls or Gnomes, they dwell in the earth and are “blacker than pitch” (Gylfaginning 17).

Þrymheimr – “Thunder-Home” or “Home of Clamor,” the abode of the giant Þjassi in the mountains of Jötunheim, where he held Iðunn captive. After his death his daughter Skaði, wife of Njörð, preferred to dwell there rather than in Æsgard with her husband (cf. Grímnismál 11).

Þrûðheimr (or Þrúðvangar) – "The Place of Might," the kingdom where Valhalla stands.

Thund – “The Swollen” or “The Roaring,” the river surrounding Valhalla, across which the dead find it hard to cross at Ragnarök (cf. Grímnismál 21).

Urðarbrunn – “Well of Fate” (Urð’s Well), a sacred fountain of wisdom at the foot of Yggrassil in Æsgard (“beneath the spreading boughs,” beside which the gods assemble daily for their court of law and where the Norns have their hall (perhaps within the pool itself; cf. Völuspá 20), tending the tree each day with the well’s sacred water and whitening it with clay from the spring to preserve it from decay. The water falls to earth each day as “honey-dew”.

Válaskjálf or Valaskjolf – “The Shelf of the Slain” or “Hall of Slain Warriors,” the first of Oðin's three halls. Odin’s hall in Æsgard, roofed (“thatched”) in sheer silver, within which he can sit and view all the worlds at once from the high-seat, or watch-tower, Hliðskjálf. Gering identifies this with Valhalla. Named at St.6 in Grímnismál.

Valgrind – “The Death Gate” or “The Gate of the Battle Slain,” the ancient gate which stands before Valhalla, protecting the holy doors (cf. Grímnismál 22, Sigurtharkvitha en skamma, 68).

Valhalla (from O.N. Valhöll) – “Hall of the Slain” in Æsgard, the feast hall of Odin in Glaðsheim, within the realm of Þrûðheimr. It is the greatest and most beautiful hall in the world, appearing shining and golden, to which mortal warriors go after death in battle. Within it are all the dwellings of the other gods.Valhalla has spear-shafts for rafters, a roof thatched with shields, coats of mail are strewn over its benches, a wolf hangs in front of its west doors, and an eagle hovers above it (cf. Grímnismál 8-10). The ancient gate Valgrind stands before the holy doors of Valhalla, the hall has five hundred and forty doors through each of which eight hundred men can exit at once [=432,000 warriors] (from which the Einherjar will flow forth to engage the wolf Fenrir at Ragnarök). Within Valhalla exists Thor's hall Bilskirnir, and within it exist five hundred and forty rooms, and of all the halls within Valhalla, Odin states that he thinks his son's may be greatest. In stanzas 25 through 26, Odin states that the goat Heiðrún and the hart Eikþyrnir stand on top of Valhalla and graze on the branches of the tree Læraðr. Heiðrún produces vats of mead that liquor cannot be compared to, and from Eikþyrnir's antlers drip liquid into the spring Hvergelmir from which flows forth all waters (cf. Grímnismál 22-26.)

Valland – “Land of Slaughter,” mentioned (Hárbarðsljóð St.24) as a place where Odin waged an unknown war. Auden-Taylor translates it as Gaul. (cf. also prose introduction to Volundarkvitha, and Helreith Brynhildar, 2).

Vanaheim – The realm of the Vanir, gods of wealth and fertility, lying to the west in Æsgard.

Vestrsalir – “The Western Hall,” mentioned only in Baldrs draumar (St.11) as the place where Rind gives birth to Vali.

Vígríðr – “Battle-Surge” or “The Field of Battle,” where Surt defeats the gods at Ragnarök. It measures a hundred “rasts” (or “resting stops,” generally translated as miles) in each direction, and is situated somewhere above Bifrost in Æsgard (cf. Vafþrúðnismál 18). Called Oskopnir in the Fáfnismal (St.15).

Vingólf – The hall of the female Æsir in Æsgard on the Iðavöll near Glaðsheimr. It is described as the hall or hörgr of the goddesses and also as a place where righteous men and those slain in battle go after death. It is mentioned only in the Prose Edda and in the enigmatic poem Hrafnagaldur Óðins.

Vithi or Vîði – “Wide-Land” (?), the realm of Viðar, Odin’s son, mentioned only at Grímnismál 17. It is said to be filled with growing trees and high-standing grass, and it is there at Ragnarök that Viðar will leap from his steed to slay Fenrir in vengeance for his father’s death.

Ydalir – "Yew-Dales" or “Ydal's Plains ,” the home of Ulf, the archer among the gods, a son of Thor's wife, Sif, by another marriage. The wood of the yew-tree was used for bows in the North just as it was long afterwards in England. Mentioned at Grímnismál 5.

Yggdrasil – “Odin’s Horse,” the great ash tree whose boughs overhang the world, at the foot of which sit the Norns, and where the gods gather each day for council. It has three roots, one of which descends to Hel where the spring of Hvergelmir and the dragon Nidhögg reside, the next to Jötenheim, by which is Mimir’s spring, and the last either in Midgard (cf. Grímnismál 31 ff.), or Æsgard where lies the Well of Urd.

Andvarafors – “Andvari's Fall.” According to Snorri’s Skaldskaparmal, Andvari's Fall was in the world of the dark elves, while the one where Loki killed the otter was not. In the Reginsmal, however, the two are considered identical.

Bralund – Home country of Borghild, first wife to Sigmund and mother of Helgi Hundingsbane.

Frekastein – "Wolf-Crag," a name which appears several times in the Helgi lays applied to battlefields; (cf. Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 46 and 55, and II, 18 and 24). In Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, it is where Helgi falls (see Sigarsvoll; Sigarsholm).

Glasir's Wood – A stand of trees with golden leaves before Othin's hall, which Snorri calls "the fairest wood among gods and men." (cf. Skaldskaparmal). In Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar it is the home of Sigrlin in Svavaland.

Gnipalund – “Crag-Wood,” home of Granmar’s clan, and location of Svarin’s Hill (cf. Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 31, 35).

Gnitaheið – “Craggy(?) Heath,” the location of Fáfnir’s lair. It has been identified as lying south of Paderborn, Germany.

Hethin’s Isle – Hiddense, an island near Rügen. Helgi

Hindarfjoll or Hindar Fell – “Mountain (Fell) of the Hind,” where a hall made of golden shields stands in which Brynhild lies surrounded by a ring of fire (possibly the hall is called Skialdborg). It lay north of the Frankish lands.

Hlés Isle – Laesö, in the Kattegat. (cf. Helgakvitha Hundingsbana II, 7).

Hlymdalir – “Tumult  Dale,” the seat of Heimir, foster-father to Brynhild. It was there Sigurd stays as a guest and is betrothed to Brynhild (cf. Helreið Brynhildar 6, Vǫlsunga Saga, Ch.27; Grípisspá, Sts.19, 29, 31).

Hringstadir – Ringsted, on the island of Zealand (cf. Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 8).

Myrkheim – “The Dark Abode,” possibly identical with Myrkvith, but likely the name of the dungeon into which Gunnar is cast (cf. Atlakviða 37).

Myrkvith – “The Dark Forest,” said to lie between the land of the Burgundians and Atli’s kingdom (cf. Oddrúnargrátr 23; Atlakviða 3, 5, 13). Also used generically of a forest lying between Muspelheim and Midgard (cf. Lokasenna 42).

Orvasund – Almost certainly the Danish Oresund, off Seeland. Such bits of geography as this followed Helgi persistently (see Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 25).

Saemorn – A river or swampy lake forded by Atli (cf. Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar 5; nowhere else mentioned)

Sigar’s Field – Sigersted, on the island of Zealand. Helgi

Sigarsholm – "Isle of Sigar," a place not identified, but probably related to the Sigarsvoll where Helgi was slain (Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar 35). There is where the serpent sword which Svava told Helgi about was kept.

Sigarsvoll – “Sigar’s Vale,” or “Sigar’s Field,” the place where Helgi duels to the death with Alf, son of Hrothmar.

Skatalund – “Warrior’s Grove,” alternate name for Hindarfjoll, the place of Brynhild’s punishment by Odin (cf. Helreið Brynhildar 9).

Skialdborg – “Shield Tower,” the hall on Hindarfjoll made all of golden shields in which Brynhild lay surrounded by a ring of flames.

Svarins Hill –  The hill in Gnipalund where Granmar had his dwelling, identified with Schwerin (Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 32).

Svavaland – Realm of King Svafnir in Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, across a mountain range from King Hjorvarð, attacked and set aflame by Hrothmar, a rival suitor of Sigrlin. Possibly identified with Brandenburg, the original home of the Suevi.

Valland – “Land of Slaughter,” used epithetically for Hel (cf. Helreið Brynhildar 2).

Varinsvik or Varinsfjord – “Varin’s Cove” or “Fjord,” home of a mythical King Varin at Skorustrond in Rogaland, Norway. It was there that the giantess Hrimgerth tried to sink Helgi’s fleet (cf. Helgakvitha Hjorvarthssonar, 22 and note; Helgakvitha Hundingsbana I, 27, 39).

Vathgelmir – "Raging to Wade," a river in the underworld where oathbreakers are submerged (mentioned only at Reginsmál, 4).

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